This concluding chapter makes some generalizations about the significance of the alien or exotic as a subject in literature, specifically in the case of modern Japanese literature. Discussion of themes such as the uncanny or the gothic narrative is not all that common in studies of Japanese literature. Much more common is a direct tracing of influence from foreign literatures on the works of Japanese writers. Ultimately, all cultures are hybrid; it is just that some are more so than others. This statement reflects the reality that the cultural history of all human societies is a history of the encounter with the Other, and the subsequent adaptations and compromises that result are but one step in a long line of such encounters.
Keywords: literature, Other, modern Japanese literature, Japanese writers, foreign literatures, cultural history